Statue of Moses in Venezuela.

真相、谎言和委内瑞拉

美国剑桥—委内瑞拉总统马杜罗又和我“杠上了”。政府控制的国家电视台最近播出了一段非法录制的私人电话对话,在这段对话里,我提出研究一下如何通过利用国际社会的支持拯救委内瑞拉经济。政府对录音进行了蹩脚的编辑,使它的内容显得十分邪恶,欺骗对话的意思,污蔑我个人并计划起诉我

这让我开始思考邪恶的核心问题。邪恶是完全相对的吗?有客观标准判定某种行为或行动是邪恶的吗?所有的冲突都发生在合法的各方之间吗——比如,我之恐怖分子,彼之自由斗士?我们可以说有些战斗真的是正义与邪恶之争吗?

作为大屠杀幸存者的儿子,我对道德相对论一直抱有天生的厌恶。但说纳粹邪恶有什么客观依据?汉娜·阿伦特指出,像阿道夫·艾希曼(Adolf Eichmann)这样的人有的是,“他们不是变态,也不是虐待狂”,相反,“他们曾经,现在也仍然是非常地、可怕地正常的人。” 托马斯·哈丁(Thomas Harding)对鲁道夫·霍斯(Rudolf Höss)的描述也体现了类似的正常性。霍斯是奥斯维辛集中营负责人,他为以出色完成任务而自豪。

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