La vida después de Darwin

MARSELLA – Para muchos filósofos griegos el mundo estaba en movimiento perpetuo –un proceso de evolución constante. Sin embargo, en el mundo de Charles Darwin, el creacionismo sienta las bases para la ciencia. Así pues, los fundamentos de su Teoría de la Evolución son la interpretación literal de la Biblia que dominó su época y la visión de Aristóteles de la naturaleza como algo definitivamente fijo.

Darwin junto con J. B. Lamarck promovieron una visión de un mundo cambiante mientras que sostenían la idea de que los organismos evolucionaron a partir de un solo origen –una postura representada por Adán y Eva en el mundo creacionista y rescatada en la era moderna por el Último Ancestro Común Universal (LUCA, por sus siglas en inglés). Y de los restos de la narración bíblica de la creación surgió la noción de un árbol de la vida, junto con conceptos importantes como el gradualismo (la idea de que la diferenciación en especies no ocurre de manera abrupta) y la idea de que a la larga las presiones leves sobre la selección pueden tener efectos profundos para una mejor adaptación.

La visión que tenía Darwin del mundo tuvo una profunda influencia sobre la biología en el siglo XX, a pesar de las dudas persistentes planteadas por factores como la transferencia genética lateral, la evolución y los cuellos de botella caóticos en la selección natural. No obstante, investigaciones recientes sobre genética refutan categóricamente esta visión del mundo.

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