Musique et liberté

NEW YORK – La Corée du Nord - officiellement la République populaire démocratique de Corée - est l'une des dictatures les plus oppressives, fermées et vicieuses de la planète. C'est peut-être le dernier exemple vivant de totalitarisme pur – le contrôle par l'Etat de tous les aspects de la vie des gens. Est-ce un endroit approprié pour un orchestre occidental ? Imagine-t-on l'orchestre philharmonique de New-York qui s'est fait acclamer à Pyongyang, se produire devant Staline ou Hitler ? 

Tous les systèmes totalitaires ont un élément en commun : du fait qu'ils écrasent toute forme d'expression politique à l'exception de l'adulation du régime, tout est politique. Un événement sportif ou culturel non politique est inconcevable en Corée du Nord. Il est donc évident que l'invitation de l'orchestre philharmonique de New-York devait servir à rehausser le prestige du régime sous la houlette du Cher dirigeant, Kim Jong-Il. Il a tellement mauvaise presse - même dans la Chine voisine - qu'il a grand besoin de redorer son image.

Interviewés, certains musiciens ont répondu être au courant de cet état de chose. Selon une violoniste, beaucoup de musiciens ne croyaient pas à l'argument du parti selon lequel la musique transcende la politique. Elle pensait que le concert serait utilisé politiquement, tant par Pyongyang que par le gouvernement américain. Le chef d'orchestre, Lorin Maazel, qui avait choisi un programme comportant Wagner, Dvorak, Gershwin et Bernstein était moins cynique. Le concert, a-t-il déclaré, "prendra son impulsion propre" et "aura un effet positif sur la société nord-coréenne".

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