自由与音乐

纽约——北朝鲜,正式的名字是朝鲜民主主义人民共和国,是世界上压迫性最强、最封闭、也是最不道德的独裁专政。这个国家也许是纯粹集权主义的最后一个据点——国家控制着人民生活的方方面面。这样一个地方是不是西方乐队演出的合适地点?人们能否想象纽约爱乐乐团在平壤的演出引起强烈反响?他们是不是在为斯大林或者希特勒带去娱乐?

所有的极权主义体系都有一个共同的特点:那就是通过镇压除阿谀奉承以外所有形式的政治表述,将所有问题全部政治化。在北朝鲜根本就没有与政治无关的体育和文化。因此对纽约爱乐乐团的邀请毫无疑问意在加强由亲爱的领袖金正日(Kim Jong-Il)所领导的独裁政权的威望。金正日在人们心目中的形象太过不雅——即使在相邻的中国也不例外——因此他需要抓住一切机会来提升自己的形象。

在采访某些音乐家时他们也意识到了这个问题。媒体援引一位小提琴手的话说“我们很多人对所谓音乐高于政治的政党方针也并不认可。”她“肯定平壤和我们自己的政府会利用这次演出来试图达成政治协议。”纽约爱乐的指挥洛林·马泽尔(Lorin Maazel)选择演奏瓦格纳、德沃夏克、格什温和伯恩斯坦的作品,他的看法相比之下没有那么偏激。这次音乐会,他说,“会发挥它自己的作用,”对北朝鲜社会产生积极的影响。

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