Puzzle words hand Liza/Flickr

Il puzzle della democrazia liberale

PRINCETON – Quasi vent’anni fa, il giornalista politico Fareed Zakaria scrisse un articolo profetico dal titolo “L’ascesa della democrazia illiberale”, in cui temeva l’ascesa degli autocrati popolari con una scarsa considerazione dello stato di diritto e delle libertà civili. I governi dovrebbero essere scelti con elezioni libere e giuste, scriveva, eppure continuano a violare i diritti fondamentali dei loro cittadini.

Dall’articolo di Zakaria, le democrazie illiberali sono diventate più la norma che l’eccezione. Secondo i conteggi della Freedom House, oltre il 60% dei Paesi del mondo sono democrazie elettorali – regimi in cui i partiti politici competono e salgono al potere a seguito di elezioni regolarmente programmate – mentre alla fine degli anni 80 rappresentavano solo il 40%. Ma la maggioranza di tali democrazie non riesce a garantire pari tutela di fronte alla legge.

In genere, sono i gruppi di minoranza (etnici, religiosi, linguistici o regionali) a sostenere il peso di politiche e pratiche illegali. Ma le opposizioni al governo di ogni colore politico rischiano la censura, la persecuzione o la detenzione senza concreti elementi di accusa.

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