Dejemos que gobiernen los países en desarrollo

CAMBRIDGE – No hay mal que por bien no venga en el caso de los países en desarrollo en la crisis actual, ya que tras ella contarán con una participación mucho mayor en las instituciones que gobiernan la globalización económica. Una vez que se asiente el polvo, China, India, Brasil, Corea del Sur y un puñado de otras naciones "emergentes" podrán ejercer una mayor influencia en la manera en que se dirigen las instituciones económicas multilaterales, y estarán en una mejor posición para impulsar reformas que reflejen sus intereses.

Para esto, existen dos razones vinculadas. Primero, la crisis financiera debilitó a Estados Unidos y a Europa, que no querrán o no podrán ofrecer el tipo de liderazgo que sustentó el multilateralismo en las décadas que siguieron a la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Los países en desarrollo tendrán que dar un paso adelante para llenar esta brecha.

Segundo, el peso y la importancia relativos de los países en desarrollo en la economía global aumentaron incluso más. Muchas de las principales instituciones financieras de Occidente -las que no han sido nacionalizadas-, así como algunas empresas industriales importantes, seguirán a merced del capital proveniente de China o los estados del Golfo. En materia de comercio, la actual ronda de negociaciones globales demostró que si los países ricos quieren que las naciones en desarrollo cooperen, tendrán que permitirles formular las reglas del juego.

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