Chris Van Es

Dejad que florezcan cien teorías

BUDAPEST – La crisis económica y financiera ha sido un momento de profunda reflexión para los economistas, ya que ha cuestionado muchas ideas que hasta ahora gozaban de aceptación. Si la ciencia se define por su capacidad de predecir el futuro, el que gran parte de los economistas hayan sido incapaces de prever la crisis debería ser causa de gran inquietud.

Sin embargo, en realidad en la disciplina económica existe una diversidad de ideas mucho mayor de lo que se suele pensar. Los galardonados con el Nobel de economía de este año son dos académicos que han dedicado su vida a explorar enfoques alternativos. Como campo de estudio, la economía ha generado una gran variedad de ideas, muchas de las cuales argumentan que los mercados no son necesariamente eficientes o estables, o que la economía y nuestra sociedad no se describen de la mejor manera mediante los modelos estándar de equilibrio competitivo utilizados por la mayoría de los economistas.

La economía conductista, por ejemplo, pone el acento en que a menudo los participantes del mercado actúan de maneras difíciles de conciliar con el racionalismo. De manera similar, la economía de la información moderna plantea que, incluso si los mercados son competitivos, no suelen ser eficientes cuando la información es imperfecta o asimétrica (algunas personas saben cosa que otras no, como en la reciente debacle financiera), es decir, siempre .

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