Paul Lachine

Une gouvernance mondiale sans gouvernant

CAMBRIDGE – L’économie mondiale entre aujourd’hui dans une nouvelle phase, dans laquelle l’effort de coopération internationale devrait être du plus en plus difficile. Les États-Unis et l’Union Européenne, désormais sous le coup d’une dette trop élevée et d’une croissance trop faible – et par conséquent principalement axés sur leurs préoccupations nationales – ne sont plus en mesure d’édicter des règles mondiales en espérant voir les autres États s’y conformer.& & &

À l’appui de cette tendance, les puissances montantes telles que la Chine et l’Inde accordent une importance capitale à la souveraineté nationale ainsi qu’au principe de non-ingérence dans les affaires intérieures d’autrui. Ceci explique leur réticence à se soumettre aux règles internationales (ou leur peu de vigueur à exiger que les autres États s’y conforment) – et ainsi à investir dans les institutions multilatérales, comme l’ont fait les États-Unis au lendemain de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. &

C’est la raison pour laquelle le leadership et la coopération au niveau mondial continueront de faire défaut, et nécessiteront une réponse soigneusement calibrée en matière de gouvernance de l’économie globale – notamment une restriction du nombre de règles qui reconnaissent la diversité des circonstances nationales et exigent une autonomie politique. Pourtant, les discussions menées au G-20, au sein de l’Organisation mondiale du commerce et des autres instances multilatérales continuent de procéder comme si le remède était plus ou moins le même – davantage de règles, davantage d’harmonisation, et plus de sévérité à l’égard des politiques nationales.

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