Do Estado-Providência ao Estado-Inovação

PRINCETON – Um espectro assombra a economia mundial – o espectro da tecnologia destruidora de empregos. O modo como este desafio for enfrentado determinará o destino das economias de mercado e dos governos democráticos mundiais, quase da mesma maneira como a resposta Europeia à ascensão do movimento socialista durante o fim do século XIX e o início do século XX moldou o curso da história posterior.

Quando a nova classe trabalhadora industrial se começou a organizar, os governos desarmaram a ameaça de revolução do proletariado profetizada por Karl Marx, expandindo os direitos políticos e sociais, regulando mercados, criando um estado-providência que proporcionou amplas transferências e segurança social, e suavizando os altos e baixos da macroeconomia. Na verdade, reinventaram o capitalismo para torná-lo mais inclusivo e para dar aos trabalhadores uma participação no sistema.

As actuais revoluções tecnológicas exigem uma reinvenção igualmente abrangente. Os benefícios potenciais das descobertas e de novas aplicações na robótica, biotecnologia, nas tecnologias digitais e em outras áreas estão à nossa volta e são facilmente visíveis. Na verdade, muitos acreditam que a economia mundial possa estar à beira de mais uma explosão nas novas tecnologias.

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