从福利国家到创新国家

普林斯顿—一个幽灵,岗位节约型技术的幽灵,正在世界经济头上飘荡。如何应对这一挑战将决定世界市场经济和民主政治的命运,一如十九世纪末、二十世纪初欧洲应对社会主义运动的方式决定了随后的历史进程。

当新工业工人阶级开始组织起来时,政府通过扩大政治和社会权利、监管市场、建立提供大规模转移支付和社会保险的福利国家、平滑宏观经济起伏等手段消弭了马克思所预言的革命的威胁。事实上,它们重新发明了资本主义,让它变得更包容,让工人在体系中也能占据一席之地。

今天的技术革命也需要类似的全面再发明。发现和在机器人、生物技术、数字技术和其他领域的新应用所带来的潜在好处可谓无处不在。事实上,许多人认为世界经济正站在又一场新技术大爆炸的边缘。

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