O Griesafault da Argentina

NOVA IORQUE – No dia 30 de Julho, os credores da Argentina não receberam o pagamento semestral relativo às obrigações que foram reestruturadas após o último incumprimento (default, no original – NdT) do país em 2001. Alguns dias antes, a Argentina depositara 539 milhões de dólares no Bank of New York Mellon. Contudo, o banco foi impedido transferir os fundos para os credores: O Juiz federal norte-americano, Thomas Griesa, proibiu a Argentina de concretizar o pagamento aos credores que aceitaram a sua reestruturação enquanto o país não pagar na íntegra (incluindo juros passados) àqueles que não a aceitaram.

Foi a primeira vez na história que um país estava disposto e tinha possibilidade de pagar aos seus credores, mas foi impedido de o fazer por um juiz. Os órgãos de comunicação social designaram esta situação como o default da Argentina, no entanto, o termo “#Griesafault” utilizado na hashtag do Twitter parece ser bem mais apropriado. A Argentina cumpriu as suas obrigações para com os seus cidadãos e os credores que aceitaram a respectiva reestruturação. A decisão de Griesa, porém, constitui um incentivo à conduta usurária, ameaça o funcionamento dos mercados financeiros internacionais e desafia o princípio básico do capitalismo moderno de que os devedores insolventes necessitam de um novo começo.

Os incumprimentos soberanos ocorrem com frequência e por diferentes razões. No caso da Argentina, a via para o incumprimento de 2001 teve início com o aumento da dívida soberana do país na década de 1990. Esta situação ocorreu em paralelo com as reformas económicas neoliberais do “Consenso de Washington” que, de acordo com a convicção dos credores, iriam enriquecer o país. A experiência não foi bem-sucedida e a Argentina sofreu uma crise económica e social profunda, com uma recessão que se prolongou de 1998 a 2002. Quando chegou ao fim, 57,5% da população argentina vivia em situação de pobreza, o que constitui um número recorde, e a taxa de desemprego disparou para 20,8%.

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