废除美国的过度特权

纽约—美国没完没了的政治僵局给国际货币体系带来了两大影响。为人所熟知的后果是深化了主要全球储备货币——美元和号称世界“最安全”金融资产的美国国债的不确定性。毫不奇怪,美国国债的主要投资者中国和日本纷纷拉响警报。简言之,全球经济的核心占据着一个无法正常运转的政治机制,这套机制时不时发出世界主要储备资产违约的风险。

第二个影响是国际货币基金组织(IMF)的2010年配额和治理改革被进一步推迟,这项改革将倍增成员国的出资额,并略微提高主要新兴经济体的投票权。在2010年12月被IMF理事会批准之前,已在G-20首尔峰会上达成一致的这一改革方案被称为“历史性”突破。但没有美国的批准——该国拥有IMF重大决策的实际否决权,历史将停滞不前。

美国违约的风险很有可能因为关于提高美国政府债务上限形成了政治一致而结束,这一幕在2011年就发生过。但是,无论结果如何,最近的债务上限之争充分表明,我们的全球化的世界应该有一套更好的国际货币体系。当前的“无体系”实际上是20世纪70年代初布雷顿森林体系崩溃后的权宜之计。

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