Asia necesita “abenomics”

TOKIO – Una vez más, Japón da la nota discordante en Asia. Durante las dos décadas en que, una tras otra, las economías asiáticas pegaron un salto, la de Japón estuvo prácticamente estancada. Ahora que el crecimiento del PIB en los dos gigantes de Asia (China y la India) se está desacelerando bruscamente (caída que aparentemente afectará el desempeño económico en gran parte del resto de Asia), Japón registra su mejor nivel de crecimiento desde el boom de los ochenta.

Pero así como los milagros económicos asiáticos de décadas recientes siguieron el ejemplo del modelo económico aplicado en Japón durante la posguerra, tal vez las reformas que está implementando el primer ministro Shinzo Abe (la llamada “abenomics”) puedan mostrarle a las economías asiáticas un modo de recuperar el crecimiento. Para evitar que los efectos de la desaceleración de China afecten a toda la región y pongan en peligro la integración económica ya lograda, es necesario que los gobiernos de Asia (empezando por China) adopten reformas similares.

¿Cómo fue que el auge asiático se diluyó con tanta rapidez? Se dice que la economía es un campo ajeno a las pasiones, pero aún así, las economías exitosas son propensas a experimentar una de las emociones más peligrosas que existen: la autocomplacencia, el exceso de orgullo que Confucio condenó y que impide a los gobiernos reformar modelos que resultaron eficaces, incluso cuando comienzan a aparecerles tensiones.

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