Путь Японии к гармоничному упадку

ПАРИЖ. Забудьте то, что вы слышали о трудолюбивых японских служащих: с начала 1990-х годов японцы значительно ослабили свои трудовые традиции. Действительно, экономист Токийского университета Фумио Хайаши продемонстрировал, что основной причиной двадцатилетней стагнации Японии стало снижение количества работы, выполняемой японцами.

Правительство само показало пример, начав с решения закрыть общественные административные здания по субботам. Затем последовали банки Японии. С 1988 по 1993 годы официальная рабочая неделя сократилась на 10%, с 44 часов до 40. Это, также как и все остальное, помогло поставить давно работающее послевоенное японское экономическое “чудо” на колени.

В секторе обслуживания спад еще больше, чем в производстве, потому что предоставление услуг в большой степени регулируется и частично закрыто для иностранной конкуренции. В розничном секторе, который обеспечивает работой огромное количество японских рабочих, не имеющих квалификации – так называемые “семейные ” магазины – производительность в Японии сейчас на 25% ниже, чем в Западной Европе.

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