Paul Lachine

Marx et le Turc mécanique

BERKELEY – L’économiste Suresh Naidu m’a un jour expliqué qu’il existait trois failles majeures dans les travaux économiques de Karl Marx. Premièrement, selon Marx, l’augmentation de l’investissement et l’accumulation du capital réduirait la valeur de la main d’œuvre pour les employeurs, affectant ainsi le pouvoir de négociation des travailleurs. Deuxièmement, Marx échoue à pleinement saisir qu’une amélioration du niveau de vie matériel réel en faveur de la classe ouvrière pourrait bien aller de pair avec un accroissement du taux d’exploitation – c’est-à-dire une moindre part du travail dans le revenu. Enfin, il semblerait que Marx se soit exclusivement concentré sur la théorie de la valeur travail.

Ces deuxième et troisième aspects demeurent aujourd’hui d’importantes erreurs analytiques. Mais bien que la conception marxienne selon laquelle le capital et le travail se substitueraient, plutôt que de se compléter, ait constitué une erreur propre à cette époque passée, ainsi qu’au cours du siècle qui suivit, il se pourrait qu’il ne s’agisse plus aujourd’hui d’une vision erronée.

Abordons cette question de la manière suivante. Les êtres humains jouissent de cinq compétences clés au sein de l’univers du travail :

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