Die fanatischen 1% des Islam

Die Dominanz des konservativen Islam in Nahen Osten spiegelt eine grundlegende Realität innerhalb der muslimischen Gesellschaft wider. Man sollte diesen Konservatismus jedoch nicht mit gewalttätigem Radikalismus verwechseln, wie es unglücklicherweise aufseiten Amerikas geschehen ist. Der Konservatismus mag beim arabischen (und persischen) „Mann auf der Straße“ eine Mehrheit finden; dies bedeutet jedoch nicht, dass unvermeidlich Gewalt und Terrorismus die Region beherrschen werden.

Eine jüngst vom Zentrum für Islamische Studien in Damaskus veröffentlichte Studie verweist darauf, dass die Konservativen in den islamischen Gesellschaften des Nahen Ostens einen Bevölkerungsanteil von etwa 80% ausmachen. Die übrigen 20% setzen sich großteils aus Reformern zusammen. Die Radikalen können auf die Unterstützung von nicht mehr als 1% der Bevölkerung bauen. Aus meiner Sicht waren diese ungefähren Proportionen während der zehn Jahrhunderte islamischer Geschichte stabil.

Es hat sich eine islamische Terminologie herausgebildet, die diese Unterschiede beschreibt. Die Radikalen traten erstmals in Gestalt der „Khawarij“ auf, einer fanatischen Gruppe aus dem ersten Jahrhundert des Islam, die selbst geringfügige Meinungsunterschiede durch Blasphemievorwürfe und Gewalt unterdrückten. Die heutigen Konservativen werden unter Religionsgelehrten als „Menschen des Buchstabens“ bezeichnet – also als jene, die die islamischen Texte wörtlich auslegen. Die Reformer, wie sie heute genannt werden, entsprechen den „Menschen des Intellekts“.

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