¿Empieza el Banco Mundial a Entender el Crecimiento?

A primera vista, el más reciente reporte sobre la globalización publicado por el Banco Mundial tiene pocas sorpresas. Repite el mantra de que los países que se aventuraron más allá en el camino de la globalización fueron los que más éxito tuvieron en cuanto al crecimiento económico y la reducción de la pobreza. Enterrado entre las páginas del reporte, sin embargo, hay un inesperado reconocimiento: los países que se integraron más rápido a la economía mundial no fueron necesariamente los que adoptaron las políticas más inclinadas en favor del comercio.

Pensemos en lo que esto significa. Por primera vez, el Banco Mundial reconoce que la liberalización comercial podría no ser un instrumento efectivo, no sólo para estimular el crecimiento, pero incluso ni para la integración en los mercados mundiales. Está admitiendo, de forma disimulada, que sus repetidas afirmaciones acerca de los beneficios de la globalización no incluyen implicaciones directas de cómo debe conducirse la política comercial en los países en desarrollo.

En otras palabras, el Banco Mundial está empezando a enfrentarse a una realidad que resulta obvia para cualquiera que mire el registro empírico con una mente abierta. La integración rápida a los mercados globales es una consecuencia, no de la liberalización comercial o la adherencia a las críticas de la Organización Mundial de Comercio (OMC) per se , sino de exitosas estrategias para el crecimiento que a menudo tienen características altamente idiosincráticas.

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