¿ESTÁ ABRIÉNDOSE CHINA O CERRÁNDOSE?

Pese a la omnipresencia de la cuestión del Iraq, China vuelve a figurar en los titulares: se vilipendia a ese país por su actitud evasiva en relación con la epidemia del síndrome respiratorio agudo y grave (SARS) y se lo elogia por el constructivo papel que ha desempeñado de repente para contribuir a la celebración de negociaciones entre los Estados Unidos y Corea del Norte sobre la insubordinación nuclear de este último país. ¿Qué nos dicen esas dos respuestas, aparentemente dispares, sobre China y la evolución de su puesto en el mundo?

La reacción de China ante la epidemia del SARS indica una actitud defensiva casi automática cuando el mundo exterior parece inmiscuirse en sus asuntos o amenazarla de algún modo que pueda ser perjudicial o embarazoso. En ese sentido, la humillación de China en el pasado a manos de Occidente y del Japón en los siglos XIX y principios del XX sigue ejerciendo una fuerte influencia, pese al surgimiento de una "Nueva China" abierta a la mundialización en los dos últimos decenios. Aquellas experiencias dejaron una impronta tan profunda en la psique china, que ni siquiera el actual ascenso político y económico de China le ha permitido superar una sensación subyacente de victimación y agravio.

No sería exagerado decir que China se ha creado toda una identidad a partir de su victimación histórica. La mentalidad ideológica maoísta procedía de la teoría del imperialismo de Lenin, que, con la ayuda de incesantes aluviones de propaganda contra el capitalismo, el colonialismo y la hegemonía extranjera, contribuía a reforzar la sensación de humillación nacional. Cuando los portavoces del partido consideran que China ha sido victima de un trato injusto, siguen diciendo con frecuencia que determinada intervención extranjera ha "herido los sentimientos del pueblo chino".

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