イランの政治的聖職者たち

イランの神政政権は、これまでになく自信に満ちているようだ。その核計画を巡る西側との乖離は、シリアとの連結やレバノンとイラクにおいて増長する影響とともに、強大な地域勢力の出現を示唆する。しかし、西側の分析家やイランの近隣諸国が警報を発する一方で、政権の権威は事実上、不安定な礎の上に建てられている。

イラン君主制の因習を終わらせた1979年革命は、シーア派神学的基盤を持ち、シーア派の法律学者/聖職者に絶対的な統治力を与える、新たな政治秩序を生み出した。イランの長い歴史を通じて、シーア派神学校は、イランの社会及び政治に多大な影響を及ぼしてきたが、市民機関であると見なされてきた。イラン革命が起こるまで、神学校組織が政治的合法性の源とみなされることはなかった。

変化は、アヤトラ・ホメイニの「法律学者かつ統治者」理論に従った。ホメイニの視点によれば、法律学者でもある統治者は、政権が必要としていることの彼なりの解釈によって、宗教法律を修正することができる。結果として、宗教解釈– 以前は、多数の神学校が請け負うことで広く分散されていた機能 – が、政治指導者たちの手に集中した。従って、神学校組織は、もはや宗教情勢のみを管理する市民機構ではなくなり、代わりに統一された、政権の関心事に従事するイデオロギー集団へと育てられた。

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