伊朗的政治教士

伊朗神权政府似乎掌握了前所未有的权力。它与西方国家在核计划方面的分歧、与叙利亚的密切关系以及在黎巴嫩和伊拉克日趋扩大的影响都在宣告一个地区大国的诞生。然而,尽管伊朗的强盛引起了西方分析家和邻国的高度警惕,但事实上伊朗政权赖以存在的根基一点也不稳固。

1979年革命结束了伊朗帝王政治的传统,建立了以什叶派神学为基础的崭新的政治秩序,赋予法学家/教士以至高无上的权力。在伊朗历史上,虽然什叶派神学院对伊朗社会和政治有着巨大的影响,但它们仍然属于民间组织。直到伊朗革命后,神学院机构才被公认为政治合法性的源泉。

变化发生在阿亚图拉霍梅尼提出“法学家执政”的理论之后。在霍梅尼看来,执政的法学家可以根据自己对政府需求的理解来修改宗教法律。于是,此前由不同神学院履行的高度分散的职能逐渐被集中到了政治领袖的手中。进而,神学院组织也不再只是管理宗教事务的民间机构,而是演变成了为政府利益服务的统一的意识形态组织。

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