Vzývání Boha a evropská ústava

V pokrokových liberálních kruzích se požadavek, aby preambule Ústavy Evropské unie zahrnovala i zmínku o Bohu, popřípadě o „křesťanských kořenech" Evropy, setkala s posměchem či přímo s pohrdáním. Taková zmínka by se prý dostala do konfliktu se společnou evropskou ústavní tradicí státní neutrality v náboženských otázkách. Kromě toho by se jednalo o prohřešek proti politickému závazku Evropy k tolerantní multikulturní společnosti. Pravdou je ovšem pravý opak: zmínka o Bohu je ústavně přípustná a politicky závazná.

Z ústavního hlediska projevuje Evropa charakteristickou bohatost. Na základě pozitivního ústavního zákona jsou všechny členské země EU vázány Evropskou konvencí o lidských právech dodržovat princip „agnostického nebo nestranného státu", jenž zaručuje svobodu náboženství i svobodu před náboženstvím. Po celé Evropě existuje v této oblasti pozoruhodná homogenita - i když v některých krajních otázkách, jako jsou nošení náboženských pokrývek hlavy ve školách či rozmisťování krucifixů, balancují různé členské země EU různým způsobem na křehké hranici mezi svobodou náboženství a svobodou před náboženstvím.

V otázce ústavního symbolismu a ikonografie je však Evropa pozoruhodně různorodá. Na jednom pólu najdeme státy jako Francie, jejichž ústava definuje stát jako sekulární ( laique ). Na opačném pólu pak figurují země jako Dánsko a Velká Británie, kde existuje státní náboženství.

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