Internationale Gerichtsbarkeit zur Unterstützung der nationalen Justiz

In den vergangenen Jahren hat ein sich entwickelndes internationales Justizsystem damit begonnen, die alte Rechnung der Tyrannen und Folterer zu durchkreuzen. Noch vor kurzem konnten diese ihre Verbrechen ungestraft begehen und das Rechtssystem ihrer Länder zum Gehorsam zwingen. Doch dann wurden für Ruanda und das ehemalige Jugoslawien internationale Tribunale für Kriegsverbrecher ins Leben gerufen, nationale Gerichtshöfe haben Despoten aus anderen Ländern unter Anklage gestellt und bald wird auch ein ständiger internationaler Strafgerichtshof gegründet werden.

Und doch wird die internationale Gerichtsbarkeit als elitär und undemokratisch angegriffen. Kritiker beschweren sich darüber, dass die einheimische nationale Justiz durch entfernte, unerklärliche internationale Tribunale ersetzt werde. Sie verurteilen den neuen rechtlichen Imperialismus und werfen die Frage auf, warum fremde Strafverfolger kritische Entscheidungen über eine Gerichtsbarkeit von Ländern treffen sollten, zu denen sie keinerlei persönliche Beziehungen haben.

Die vergangenen Erfahrungen legen nichtsdestotrotz nahe, dass die internationale Justiz – weit von einem Ablösen der nationalen Durchsetzung der Gesetze entfernt – damit beginnt, die nationale Strafverfolgung anzutreiben, und dadurch lokale Bemühungen vielmehr bestärkt als diese abzulösen.

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