Innovation Demange Di Silvestro/ Pool

L’ Innovazione Non È Sufficiente

CAMBRIDGE – Sembra di vivere in un’epoca accelerata di innovazioni tecnologiche rivoluzionarie. Non passa praticamente giorno senza l’annuncio di qualche importante novità nel campo dell’intelligenza artificiale, delle biotecnologie, della digitalizzazione, o dell’automazione. Tuttavia, coloro che dovrebbero sapere dove ci porta tutto ciò non riescono a decidersi.

Ad un’estremità ci sono i tecno-ottimisti, i quali credono che ci troviamo all’inizio di una nuova era in cui il tenore di vita del mondo aumenterà più rapidamente che mai. All’altro estremo ci sono i tecno-pessimisti, che condiderano le statistiche sulla produttività deludenti e sostengono che i benefici per l’intera economia da parte delle nuove tecnologie resteranno limitati. Poi ci sono coloro - i tecno-apprensivi? - che sono d’accordo con gli ottimisti circa l’entità e la portata delle innovazioni, ma si preoccupano delle implicazioni negative per occupazione e giustizia.

Ciò che distingue queste prospettive l’una dall’altra non è tanto il disaccordo circa il tasso di innovazione tecnologica. Dopo tutto, chi può seriamente dubitare del fatto che l’innovazione stia progredendo rapidamente? Il dibattito è incentrato sulla questione se queste innovazioni resteranno imbottigliate in alcuni settori ad alta intensità tecnologica, che impiegano i professionisti con più elevato livello di qualificazione e rappresentano una quota relativamente piccola del PIL, o si diffonderanno nella maggior parte dell’economia. Le conseguenze di ogni innovazione per quanto riguarda produttività, occupazione ed equità dipendono, in ultima analisi, da quanto velocemente essa si propaga attraverso i mercati del lavoro e dei prodotti.

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