Le miracle démocratique de l’Indonésie

JAKARTA – Il y a encore des miracles de nos jours. Il y a dix ans, alors que la crise financière asiatique ravageait l’économie indonésienne, nombre d’experts ont annoncé que le pays allait sombrer dans l’instabilité, voire voler en éclats. Au lieu de cela, l’Indonésie, pays islamique le plus peuplé du monde, est devenue un modèle de liberté et de démocratie pour le monde musulman. Que s’est-il passé ? Et pourquoi le monde n’a t-il rien remarqué ?

Cette histoire est aussi complexe que l’Indonésie elle-même. Pour Benedict Anderson, l’un des plus grands spécialistes de l’Indonésie, la nature de ce pays a sa source dans sa culture javanaise originelle, tout particulièrement dans la tradition religieuse du wayang. Selon Anderson, “par contraste avec les grandes religions du Proche-orient…la religion du wayang n’a pas de prophète, pas de message, pas de Bible, pas de rédempteur.…l’infinie variété et l’individualité pointue de ses personnages indiquent que le wayang reflète la bigarrure de la vie humaine telle que la ressentent les Javanais...” En bref, la culture javanaise aide l’Indonésie à manier les nombreuses voix différentes que projette toute démocratie nouvelle.

Il existe aussi une forte tradition indonésienne qui consiste à résoudre les désaccords par le “musyawarah dan mufakat” (consultation et consensus). Naturellement, cette tradition n’a pas toujours empêché la violence, notamment lors des meurtres qui ont suivi le coup d’État de 1966 contre le président Sukarno. Et il y a dix ans, pendant la crise financière, de violentes émeutes anti-chinoises ont de nouveau explosé, provoquant la fuite de nombreux Chinois.

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