Indiens neue Kastenpolitik

Wieder einmal wirft das Kastensystem einen Schatten über die indische Politik. „Reservierungen“ (reservierte Plätze) für Angehörige bestimmter Kasten im Bildungssystem und öffentlichen Dienst sollen den am stärksten Benachteiligten zugute kommen, in Wirklichkeit haben sie Indiens uraltes Diskriminierungssystem jedoch gestärkt, anstatt es zu schwächen.

Hin und wieder, insbesondere vor Wahlen, verlangen Kastengruppen, auf die Liste der „sonstigen rückständigen Kasten“, der OBCs (other backward classes), gesetzt zu werden, um von diesen Reservierungen zu profitieren. Tatsächlich locken die Parteien heutzutage immer mehr Kasten mit diesen reservierten Plätzen und versprechen sogar, diese Politik auf die Zulassung zu den Elitebildungseinrichtungen und auf den privaten Sektor auszudehnen.

Für viele ist Indiens zunehmende Mobilisierung entlang der Kastengrenzen eine willkommene Behauptung ihrer „Identität“. Tatsächlich begrüßen Intellektuelle und Politiker aller Schattierungen die Politik der Kastenidentität einstimmig als einen Schritt zu wirklicher Gleichheit. Einige gehen so weit zu behaupten, dass der jüngste Aufstieg der unteren Kasten in der nordindischen Politik und die Einführung des Reservierungssystems durch die Zentralregierung einer stillen Revolution gleichkomme und dass die Kastenpolitik säkular sei und als Bollwerk gegen das religiöse Sektierertum diene.

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