La nouvelle caste politique de l’Inde

Une fois de plus, le système de castes fait planer une menace sur la politique indienne. Les quotas ( reservations ) de castes dans les emplois de l’éducation et de la fonction publique sont sensés profiter aux plus défavorisés du pays, mais en réalité, ils ont renforcé, plutôt qu’affaibli, un système indien archaïque de discrimination.

De temps à autre, en particulier avant les élections, des groupes de castes demandent à figurer sur la liste des « autres classes arriérées » ( other backwards classes OBC ), afin de bénéficier de ces quotas. En fait, de nos jours, les partis politiques agitent la carotte devant toujours plus de castes et promettent même d’élargir cette politique en ouvrant les portes de l’élite des institutions de l’éducation et du secteur privé.

Beaucoup considèrent la mobilisation croissante de l’Inde autour du modèle de castes comme une affirmation souhaitable de l’« identité ». En effet, les intellectuels et les hommes politiques de toutes tendances accueillent quasiment à l’unanimité la politique identitaire de caste comme un pas vers une véritable égalité. Certains vont même jusqu’à dire que la récente ascension des castes les plus basses dans la politique du nord de l’Inde et la mise en œuvre des mesures de discrimination positive par le gouvernement sont synonymes de révolution silencieuse ; et que la politique des castes étant laïque, elle forme un rempart contre le sectarisme religieux.

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