L'économie de l'inclusion

CAMBRIDGE – Pour bien des gens, la croissance économique a un but moralement ambigu : elle leur semble satisfaisante, uniquement dans le cas où elle est largement partagée et durable pour notre environnement. Mais comme mon père aime à le dire : « Pourquoi rendre quelque chose difficile si vous pouvez le rendre impossible ? » Si nous ne savons pas comment favoriser le développement économique, il est logique que nous ne sachions pas comment le favoriser d'une manière inclusive et durable.

Les économistes ont bataillé avec le compromis entre croissance et équité pendant des siècles. Quelle est la nature du compromis ? Comment peut-il être atténué ? La croissance peut-elle être durable si elle conduit à de plus grandes inégalités ? Est-ce que la redistribution entrave la croissance ?

Je crois que les inégalités et la croissance lente sont souvent le résultat d'une forme particulière d'exclusion. Comme le dit Adam Smith : « Ce n'est pas de la bienveillance du boucher, du brasseur ou du boulanger que nous attendons notre dîner, mais plutôt du soin qu'ils apportent à la recherche de leur propre intérêt. » Alors, pourquoi la croissance n'inclut-elle pas l'intérêt des personnes, plutôt que d'exiger une action collective délibérée ?

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