As Ideias antes dos Interesses

CAMBRIDGE – A teoria política mais difundida é também a mais simples: os poderosos conseguem o que querem. A regulação financeira é conduzida pelos interesses dos bancos, a política de saúde pelos interesses das companhias de seguros, e a política fiscal pelos interesses dos ricos. Aqueles que podem influenciar mais o governo – através do controlo de recursos, informação, acesso, ou da mera ameaça de violência – no fim conseguem o que querem.

O mesmo acontece globalmente. A política externa é determinada, diz-se, antes de mais por interesses nacionais – e não por afinidades com outras nações ou por preocupação pela comunidade global. Os acordos internacionais são impossíveis a não ser que estejam alinhados com os interesses dos Estados Unidos e, de modo crescente, com os de outras potências nascentes. Em regimes autoritários, as políticas são a expressão directa dos interesses do governante e dos seus sequazes.

É uma narrativa convincente, com a qual podemos prontamente explicar como a política tantas vezes gera desfechos perversos. Seja em democracias, ditaduras, ou na arena internacional, esses desfechos reflectem a capacidade, que interesses limitados e especiais têm, de alcançar resultados que prejudicam a maioria.

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