La fragmentación de Iraq

El proyecto de constitución de Iraq probablemente se aprobará en el referéndum que se llevará a cabo e 15 de octubre. Pero en última instancia no importa que se ratifique o no, ya que la constitución -y todo el proceso de elaboración del documento- es totalmente ajeno a las realidades de un país que ya no existe como un cuerpo político coherente.

El problema no es con la constitución sino con la  concepción generalizada -casi una idea fija- de que Iraq es un Estado-nación moderno viable y que todo lo que se necesita para hacerlo funcionar debidamente son las instituciones políticas adecuadas. Pero esto es una falacia, y los líderes responsable deberían de empezar a pensar en alternativas.

El Estado iraquí, creado en los años 1920 por los planificadores imperialistas británicos (con Winston Churchill a la cabeza), es una extraña mezcla de tres provincias desiguales del viejo imperio otomano: Mosul en el norte de mayoría kurda, Bagdad en el centro con una mayoría árabe sunita, y Basora en el sur de mayoría árabe chiíta. Por sus propias razones políticas, los británicos dieron el control de todo el país a los árabes sunitas (que nunca fueron más  del 25% de la población) e incluso importaron un príncipe árabe sunita hashemita para gobernar su invento.

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