Rozkřáplý slepenec Irák

Návrh irácké ústavy bude zřejmě schválen v referendu, jež se má konat 15. října. Na tom, zda bude ústava ratifikována, nebo ne, nakonec ovšem nezáleží, neboť konstituce – a celý proces jejího vytváření – je naprosto vytržená z reality země, která už jako soudržný stát neexistuje.

Problém netkví v ústavě, nýbrž ve všeobecné víře, ba téměř utkvělé myšlence, že Irák je životaschopný moderní národní stát a že jediné, co k řádnému fungování potřebuje, jsou patřičné politické instituce. To je však klamná představa a zodpovědní lídři by měli začít přemýšlet o alternativách.

Irácký stát, vytvořený ve 20. letech minulého století britskými imperiálními plánovači (s Winstonem Churchillem v čele), je podivným skloubením tří nesourodých provincií staré Osmanské říše: Mosulu na severu s kurdskou majoritou, Bagdádu uprostřed s majoritou sunnitských Arabů a Basrou na jihu s majoritou šíitských Arabů. Vedeni svými vlastními politickými zájmy, Britové předali kontrolu nad celou zemí sunnitským Arabům, již nikdy netvořili víc než 25% obyvatelstva, a dokonce do země dopravili sunnitského arabského hášimovského prince, aby nad jejich dílem vládl.

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