覆水难收的伊拉克

伊拉克的宪法草案很可能会在10月15日举行的全民公决中获得批准。但它最终能否获得通过其实都无关紧要,因为这部宪法—及其整个立法程序—都完全与该国已不成其为一个政治实体的现实脱节。

问题不在于宪法(本身),而在于传统智慧—几乎可说是一种思维定势—即伊拉克是一个有活力的现代民族国家,而使它正常运转所需要的只是合适的政治制度。但这是一种错觉,负责任的领导人们应该开始思考其它的方案了。

由英帝国主义规划者(以丘吉尔为首)在1920年建立的伊拉克国家是由曾隶属于老的土耳其帝国的三个截然不同的省份组成的奇特仿制品:北部以库尔德人为主的摩苏尔,中部以逊尼派阿拉伯人为主的巴格达和南部以什叶派阿拉伯人为主的巴士拉。出于其自身的政治愿因,英国人将逊尼派阿拉伯人—从未超过总人口的5%--扶上统治地位,他们甚至还引进了一位哈桑家族的王子来统辖其杰作。

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