As mulheres e a economia mundial

WASHINGTON, DC – Em muitos países, o debate público sobre a igualdade de género incide principalmente no acesso das mulheres a posições de topo e a oportunidades para cargos de alta responsabilidade. Mas o “tecto de vidro" é apenas uma pequena parte do problema. A questão mais abrangente é saber, em primeiro lugar, se as mulheres têm as mesmas oportunidades do que os homens para participarem no mercado de trabalho. Por outras palavras, estarão as mulheres habilitadas para contribuírem plenamente para o crescimento e a prosperidade da economia mundial?

Infelizmente, o estudo mais recente realizado pela equipa do Fundo Monetário Internacional, “Mulheres, Trabalho e a Economia", mostra que, apesar de haver algumas melhorias, o progresso para criar condições equitativas para as mulheres estagnou. Esta é uma má notícia para todos, porque traduz-se num menor crescimento económico - representando no máximo 27% do PIB per capita em alguns países.

Em todo o mundo, o número de mulheres profissionalmente activas continua a ser muito inferior ao dos homens; apenas cerca de metade das mulheres em idade activa está empregada. As mulheres representam a maior parte do trabalho não remunerado e, quando recebem salário, estão sobre-representadas no sector informal e entre os pobres. Continuam a receber salários inferiores aos dos homens, para os mesmos postos de trabalho, mesmo nos países da OCDE, onde a diferença média salarial é de cerca de 16%. E, em muitos países, as distorções e as discriminações no mercado de trabalho reduzem as hipóteses de as mulheres terem igualdade de remuneração e ascensão a cargos superiores.

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