女性和世界经济

华盛顿—在许多国家,性别平等的公共争论主要集中在女性获得顶级职位和权重职业机会的问题上。但“玻璃天花板”只是这一问题的一小部分。更大的问题是女性一开始是否和男性拥有一样的机会参与劳动力市场。换句话说:女性是否拥有了充分贡献全球经济增长和繁荣的机会?

不幸的是,IMF的最新研究《女性、工作和经济》(Women, Work, and the Economy)表明,尽管有所进步,但女性通往公平之路陷入了停滞。这对于所有人来说都是坏消息,因为这意味着经济增长更低——在一些国家,人均GDP受拖累程度高达27%。

放眼全球,职业女性的数量仍然远低于职业男性;只有大约一半的工作适龄女性得到了雇用。女性从事了大部分无薪工作,即使拿得到薪水,也大多是在非正式部门工作,薪水低的可怜。她们与男性仍然同工不同酬,即使在经合组织国家也是如此(性别收入差距为16%左右)。在许多国家,劳动力市场的扭曲和歧视限制了女性获得平等薪酬和擢升高级职位的机会。

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