Cómo Francia saquea Africa

El indisputable dominio político, económico y militar de Francia sobre sus ex colonias subsaharianas se basa en una divisa, el franco CFA. Creado en 1948 para apoyar el control de Francia sobre el destino de sus colonias, catorce países (Benín, Burkina-Faso, Costa de Marfil, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Camerún, la República Centroafricana, el Congo, Gabón, Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinea Bissau y Chad) conservaron la zona del franco incluso después de haber obtenido su independencia hace varias décadas.

A cambio de que Francia garantizara la convertibilidad del franco CFA, esos países aceptaron depositar el 65% de sus reservas extranjeras en una cuenta especial de la tesorería francesa y le dieron a Francia poder de veto sobre la política monetaria de la zona del franco cuando hubiera sobregiros en esa cuenta especial. Esas decisiones han tenido consecuencias devastadoras durante cuarenta años.

El grueso de la oferta monetaria del franco CFA proviene del comercio entre Francia y sus aliados africanos. Como resultado, las características básicas de la zona del franco siempre han sido una escasez de dinero y tasas de interés altas. Por otra parte, de acuerdo con los programas de ajuste estructural del FMI y el Banco Mundial, la estricta disciplina fiscal ha mantenido una inflación baja (como si apretar más el cinturón en aras de la estabilidad de precios fuera la prioridad de política adecuada en países extremadamente pobres afectados por décadas de demanda deprimida).

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