Wie die Franzosen Afrika plündern

Frankreichs unangefochtene politische, wirtschaftliche und militärische Vormachtstellung in seinen ehemaligen Kolonien in Afrika südlich der Sahara beruht auf einer Währungseinheit, dem CFA-Franc. Diese 1948 ins Leben gerufene Währung sollte es Frankreich erlauben, das Schicksal seiner vierzehn ehemaligen Kolonien - Benin, Burkina Faso, Elfenbeinküste, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Kamerun, Zentralafrikanische Republik, Kongo, Gabun, Äquatorialguinea, Guinea Bissau und den Tschad - zu bestimmen. Selbst nachdem diese Länder vor mehreren Jahrzehnten ihre Unabhängigkeit erreicht hatten, wurde die Franc-Zone beibehalten.

Im Gegenzug dafür, dass Frankreich die Konvertierbarkeit des CFA-Francs garantierte, willigten diese Länder ein, 65 % ihrer Devisenreserven auf ein spezielles Konto des französischen Finanzministeriums einzubezahlen. Überdies gewährte man Frankreich ein währungspolitisches Vetorecht, wenn dieses spezielle Konto überzogen war. In den letzten vierzig Jahren hatten diese Entscheidungen verheerende Auswirkungen.

Der Großteil des Geldes in CFA-Francs stammt aus dem Handel zwischen Frankreich und seinen afrikanischen Verbündeten. Infolgedessen war die Franc-Zone immer von Geldknappheit und hohen Zinssätze geprägt. Auf der anderen Seite hatten Strukturanpassungsprogramme des IWF und der Weltbank die Inflation niedrig gehalten - so als ob weitere Sparzwänge im Namen der Preisstabilität in den unter jahrzehntelanger rückläufiger Nachfrage leidenden ärmsten Ländern die angemessene politische Priorität gewesen wären.

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