Mobike Lite bycybles release in Shanghai VCG/Getty Images

¿Pagan las empresas chinas impuestos exorbitantes?

SHANGHAI – Hace un par de semanas, una entrevista al magnate chino Cao Dewang (fabricante de vidrios para automóviles) generó un acalorado debate en toda China. Cao explicó que su reciente decisión de invertir 600 millones de dólares para crear una filial de su empresa (Fuyao Glass Industry Group) en los Estados Unidos se debió en gran medida a los altos impuestos que pagan los fabricantes chinos, que según Cao son 35% más altos en China que en Estados Unidos. ¿Será verdad que la carga impositiva sobre las empresas chinas llegó a un nivel insostenible?

A juzgar estrictamente por los números, no parece ser así. Si se la mide como el cociente entre ingresos fiscales y PIB, la carga impositiva general en China según el Manual de estadísticas de finanzas públicas del Fondo Monetario Internacional es un poco más de 29%, esto es, 10% menos que el promedio mundial.

Otro modo de medir la carga impositiva general es calcular el porcentaje del PIB que supone la suma de recaudación impositiva y aportes a la seguridad social. Según esa cifra, la carga impositiva general promedio en China entre 2012 y 2015 fue 23,4%, o sea 12% menos que en los países de la OCDE. La recaudación impositiva china equivale a un 18% del PIB (contra cerca del 26% del PIB en los países desarrollados y cerca del 20% en los países en desarrollo, en 2013) y sigue en bajada.

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