热岩

堪培拉——如果向任何一位电力系统工程师询问可再生能源的情况,他们可能会告诉你可再生能源无法确保基本电力供应。换句话讲,我们不能依靠可再生能源一周七天、一天二十四小时为人类提供能量:风不是总能推动山顶的涡轮机旋转,太阳晚上也照不到太阳能电站,就连水电也可能在降雨减少的时候发生短缺。

主要可再生能源技术与生俱来的不稳定性为电力系统专家出了一道难题。这种不稳定性限制了上述种类的可再生能源进入世界电网的规模。归根结底,在消费者心目中,电能应该能够实现随时供应。

技术领域的解决方案是把大量可靠的基本电力留作电力组成的主要部分,并以在需要时可以并网发电的“调峰电厂”来作为补充。这种调峰电厂在某些国家采用水电,但通常情况下仍然有赖于燃烧汽油、柴油或者燃油等化石燃料。

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