Desplazados en casa

En la actualidad, las Naciones Unidas estiman que 77 millones de personas –más de un 1% de la población mundial- son desplazadas en sus propios países, obligadas a abandonar sus hogares por los conflictos armados, la violencia, la urbanización, el desarrollo y los desastres naturales. Es más que la población de Francia, el Reino Unido o Turquía.

No se trata de “refugiados” porque no han cruzado ninguna frontera internacional, pero a menudo sus experiencias son igual de devastadoras. Con el cada vez más común patrón de conflictos armados internos en lugar de internacionales, y la creciente regularidad de los desastres climáticos que afectan a millones de personas, el desplazamiento interno representa un desafío incluso mayor para las generaciones futuras.

Desarraigados de sus hogares y actividades que les daban sustento y traumatizados por la violencia o el súbito desastre que los obligaron a huir, a menudo los desplazados se enfrentan a un futuro extremadamente precario y con pocos recursos. Piénsese en los 15 millones de desplazados chinos tras el terremoto de Sichuan, los más de 2 millones de iraquíes arrancados de las fronteras de sus países por la violencia sectaria y de otros tipos, los 2,4 millones de desplazados en Darfur, o los cientos de miles que han huido de Mogadiscio el año último.

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