Chris Van Es

Ernte der Ausweglosigkeit

NEU-DELHI – Im Verlauf der letzten zehn Jahre haben sich Selbstmorde unter Bauern wie eine Epidemie in vier indischen Bundesstaaten ausgebreitet – Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka und Punjab. Offiziellen Angaben zufolge haben seit 1997 mehr als  160.000 Bauern in Indien Selbstmord begangen.

Diese Selbstmorde häufen sich besonders dort, wo Bauern Baumwolle anbauen, und scheinen unmittelbar in Verbindung mit der Existenz von Saatgut-Monopolen zu stehen. In Indien liegt die Versorgung mit Baumwollsaatgut nicht mehr in der Hand von Bauern, sondern zunehmend in den Händen globaler Saatgutproduzenten wie Monsanto. Diese riesigen Unternehmen haben angefangen, lokale Saatgutfirmen durch Übernahmen, Beteiligungen und Lizenzvereinbarungen unter ihre Kontrolle zu bringen und so Saatgutmonopole zu bilden.

Wenn das geschieht, wandelt sich Saatgut von einem Allgemeingut in das „geistige Eigentum“ von Firmen wie etwa Monsanto, für das das Unternehmen Profite in unbegrenzter Höhe in Form von Lizenzgebühren verlangen kann. Für Bauern bedeutet es eine weitreichendere Verschuldung.

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