Chris Van Es

حصاد الانتحار

نيودلهي ـ على مدى العقد الماضي، انتشر وباء انتحار المزارعين عبر أربع ولايات هندية ـ ماهاراشترا، وأندرا براديش، وكارناتاكا، والبنجاب. وطبقاً للبيانات الرسمية فإن أكثر من مائة وستين ألف مزارع انتحروا في الهند منذ عام 1997.

تزداد حالات الانتحار شيوعاً بين مزارعي القطن، ويبدو أنها ترتبط ارتباطاً مباشراً بوجود احتكارات البذور. فقد أفلت المدد من بذور القطن في الهند على نحو متزايد من بين أيدي المزارعين إلى أيدي شركات إنتاج البذور العالمية مثل شركة مونسانتو. ولقد بدأت هذه المؤسسات العملاقة في السيطرة على شركات البذور المحلية من خلال الاستحواذ والمشاريع المشتركة وترتيبات الترخيص، الأمر الذي أدى إلى نشوء احتكارات البذور.

ومن ثَم فقد تحولت البذور من مصلحة عامة مشتركة إلى "ملكية فكرية" لشركات مثل مونسانتو، وبهذه الملكية تستطيع الشركات أن تجني أرباحاً لا حدود لها من خلال تحصيل حقوق الملكية. وبالنسبة للمزارعين فإن هذا يعني المزيد من الديون.

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