Haïti : un Etat à construire

SAINT DOMINGUE – Les cinq millions de dollars d'aide attribués à court terme à Haïti et les 10 milliards promis pour sa reconstruction à long terme lors de la conférence internationale des donateurs qui a eu lieu le 31 mars constituent une marque de confiance dans le potentiel de la collaboration internationale. Mais ce n'est pas seulement une question d'argent, car il s'agit de savoir si l'on considère le calvaire d'Haïti comme une crise humanitaire parmi d'autres ou comme un problème structurel de construction d'un Etat - autrement dit faut-il chercher à établir la stabilité institutionnelle à long terme dans ce pays et l'aider à parvenir à un développement durable.

Manifestement la République dominicaine voisine a été la première à mesurer l'étendue du problème et à comprendre la nécessité d'une solution globale. La décision du gouvernement dominicain de tenir un sommet sur l'avenir d'Haïti vise à garantir l'engagement à long terme de la communauté internationale - au-delà de la réaction généreuse au tremblement de terre de janvier.

Le président dominicain Leonel Fernandez veut non seulement coordonner le flux de dons et mettre en oeuvre les projets de développement sur lesquels tout le monde s'est mis d'accord, mais également s'engager dans une entreprise à long terme : rebâtir les structures d'un Etat haïtien à la dérive. Estimant que la tragédie d'Haïti est avant tout politique, il veut à juste titre transformer la crise que traverse l'île en un levier pour construire un Etat fonctionnel et tirer le pays de son isolement politique pour en faire en un membre actif de la communauté régionale et mondiale.

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