Karim Sahibafp/ Stringer/ Getty Images

دول الخليج والعائد الذي يدره المغتربون

باريس ــ تُرى كيف ينبغي لصناع السياسات في دول الخليج في منطقة الشرق الأوسط أن يديروا القوى العاملة الضخمة من الوافدين المغتربين في بلدانهم؟ يمثل الرعايا الأجانب في المملكة العربية السعودية ما يقرب من ثلث السكان. وفي قطر والإمارات العربية المتحدة، يشكل المغتربون تسعة من كل عشرة من السكان. ولكن هل ينبغي لحكومات هذه البلدان أن تستمر في الاستثمار بكثافة في تنمية القوى العاملة المحلية بهدف الحد من الاعتماد على العمال الأجانب؟

الواقع أن النسبة البالغة الارتفاع من العمالة الأجنبية في دول مجلس التعاون الخليجي تُعَد غالبا معضلة تنطوي على مشاكل معقدة. فهي كما يرى بعض المراقبين تهدد الثقافات المحلية والهويات الوطنية، وتُبقي على الأجور منخفضة، وتعيق تنمية المهارات والمواهب المحلية. وفي ظل هذا العدد الكبير من المهن والحرف التي تهيمن عليها عمالة رخيصة نسبيا قادمة من الخارج، لا يتبقى للسكان من أهل البلاد الأصليين سوى قِلة من المجالات المهنية التي تعرض أجورا تنافسية. ولا تتوفر مثل هذه الوظائف إلا في القطاع العام غالبا، حيث تُستَغَل عائدات النفط للحفاظ على مستوى مرتفع من الرواتب وظروف العمل الجذابة.

بيد أن بُعدا مهما من الحوار السياسي في المنطقة ربما يتعرض لخطر التغافل والإهمال: فمن الواضح أن الطائفة الضخمة من الأجانب ليسوا مجرد عاملين، بل إنهم مستهلكون أيضا. ومن خلال تضخيم عدد سكان البلدان التي يعيشون فيها، يساعد العمال الأجانب في دفع عجلة النمو الاقتصادي.

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