Bernie Madoff Bryan Smith/ZumaPress

الاحتيال، والحمقى، والأسواق المالية

نيوهافين ــ في أحد كتاباته الشهيرة، تحدث آدم سميث عن "اليد الخفية" التي تعمل من خلالها ملاحقة الأفراد لمصالحهم الذاتية في سوق حرة تنافسية على تعزيز مصالح المجتمع ككل. وكان سميث محقا: فقد نجحت الأسواق الحرة في جلب قدر غير مسبوق من الازدهار للأفراد والمجتمعات على حد سواء. ولكن لأن التلاعب بنا أو خداعنا أو حتى استمالتنا بشكل سلبي أمر وارد، فإن الأسواق الحرة تقنعنا أيضاً بشراء أشياء لا تعود علينا ولا على المجتمع بنفع يُذكَر.

وتمثل هذه الملاحظة ملحقاً مهماً لرؤية سميث. وهي الملاحظة التي استكشفتها مع جورج أكيرلوف في كتابنا الجديد "تصيد الحمقى: اقتصاديات التلاعب والخداع".

لقد تعرض أغلبنا للتصيد: رسائل البريد الإلكتروني والمكالمات الهاتفية المصممة للاحتيال علينا. و"الأحمق" هو كل من لا يدرك تمام الإدراك أن التصيد منتشر في كل مكان. والأحمق يرى أمثلة متفرقة من التصيد، ولكنه لا يقدر مدى الاحترافية التي تستند إليها مثل هذه المحاولات، ولا مدى عمق تأثير هذه الاحترافية على حياة البشر. ومن المؤسف أن كثيرين منا كانوا حمقى ــ بما في ذلك أكيرلوف وأنا، وهذا هو ما دفعنا إلى تأليف هذا الكتاب.

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