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Repensar a Robin Hood

MADRID – Las ayudas internacionales al desarrollo se basan en el principio de Robin Hood: quitarle al rico para darle al pobre. Es así como agencias nacionales de desarrollo, organismos multilaterales y ONG transfieren más de 135 000 millones de dólares por año de los países ricos a los pobres.

Un nombre más formal del principio de Robin Hood es “prioritarismo cosmopolita”, una regla ética según la cual debemos valorar del mismo modo a cada persona del mundo, sin importar dónde viva, y luego concentrar la ayuda donde sea más útil, dando prioridad a los que tienen menos sobre los que tienen más. Esta filosofía es el principio rector (implícito o explícito) de los programas de ayuda humanitaria, sanitaria y al desarrollo económico.

A primera vista, el prioritarismo cosmopolita parece razonable. En los países pobres, la gente tiene necesidades más apremiantes y los precios son mucho más bajos, de modo que un dólar o un euro es dos o tres veces más eficaz allí que en los países donantes. Gastar dinero en casa no solo es más costoso, sino que además el gasto beneficia a quienes ya están en buena situación (al menos en comparación con otros países), así que no hace tanto bien.

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