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罗宾汉再思考

马德里—国际发展援助的基础是罗宾汉原则:劫富济贫。在这一原则的指导下,目前国家发展机构、多边组织和非政府组织每年从发达国家那里转移1,350亿多美元给穷国。

罗宾汉原则的更加正式的术语是“大同优先论”(cosmopolitan prioritarianism),这是一条道德原则,认为我们应该以同样方式看待世界上的每一个人,不管他们住在何处,然后在专注于帮助最需要帮助的地方。拥有的越少,优先级别越高。这一隐含或直接的哲学指导着经济发展援助、卫生援助和人道主义紧急情况援助。

表面上,大同优先论有其道理。穷国人民的需要更加紧迫,并且穷国的物价水平要低得多,因此一美元或一欧元能够买到比美国或欧洲多一两倍的东西。把钱花在美国或欧洲不但更加昂贵,其流向也往往是境况很好的人(至少相对很好,从全球标准衡量),因此起不了多少行善的作用。

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