El estado de la pobreza global

WASHINGTON, DC – La geografía económica del mundo está cambiando. La eurozona enfrenta el espectro de otra vuelta de estancamiento; Japón ha caído en una recesión, y Estados Unidos, a pesar del desempeño relativamente sólido en la última parte del año, ha generado temores en todo el mundo con su salida del alivio cuantitativo. Mientras tanto, las economías emergentes siguieron teniendo un buen desempeño. La India e Indonesia están creciendo en más del 5% anual; Malasia, 6%, y China, en más del 7%.

La magnitud del cambio global se puede ver cuando se toma en cuenta la paridad de poder adquisitivo (PPA) -una medición de la cantidad total de bienes y servicios que se pueden comprar con un dólar en cada país-. Según las cifras de 2011, difundidas a comienzos de este año, la India hoy es la tercera economía más grande del mundo en términos de PBI ajustado por PPA, delante de Alemania y Japón. Los datos también revelaron que China superaría a Estados Unidos como la principal economía del mundo en términos de PPA en algún momento de este año -un cambio que, según nuestras estimaciones, se produjo el 10 de octubre.

A pesar de este progreso, una gran proporción de gente en los países en desarrollo sigue siendo terriblemente pobre. En términos globales, la línea de pobreza se define como un ingreso diario de 1,25 dólar, ajustado por PPA -una línea que  muchos critican por considerarla sorprendentemente baja -. Pero lo que realmente sorprende es que casi mil millones de personas -incluido más del 80% de las poblaciones de la República Democrática del Congo, Madagascar, Liberia y Burundi- viven por debajo de esa línea.

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