refugees want germany Artur Widak/ZumaPress

Les racines de l’ouverture allemande

PARIS – « Allemagne, Allemagne » clamait des milliers de réfugiés, devant la mauvaise volonté flagrante des autorités politiques de la Hongrie, devant la gare Keleti de Budapest. Ils rêvent d’être déjà en Allemagne – pas dans n’importe quel pays d’Europe, mais en particulier l’Allemagne – de la même façon, qu’il y a un siècle, les moins nantis d’Europe, fuyant le dénuement de leur condition – et, dans certains cas, les pogroms – rêvaient d’Amérique.

Ceci marque une césure très nette avec le passé. Quel contraste entre la photo, prise il y a moins de 80 ans dans le ghetto de Varsovie, d’un jeune enfant juif les bras en l’air et le regard effrayé, et celle prise il y a quelques jours d’un jeune réfugié à Munich, sa tête coiffée d’un képi de gendarme. Pour le premier enfant, l’Allemagne représentait la mort assurée ; pour le second, elle offre une vie meilleure.

Et l’Allemagne ne représente pas uniquement un espoir abstrait ; le pays accueille le plus grand nombre de migrants que tout autre pays d’Europe, la chancelière Angela Merkel ayant annoncé que le pays accueillera au moins 800 000 demandeurs d’asile cette année. Comment un pays peut-il passer si vite des ténèbres à la lumière?

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