La economía mundial en trasformación

NUEVA YORK – Al tocar a su fin 2013, las medidas encaminadas a reavivar el crecimiento en las economías más influyentes del mundo, exceptuada la zona del euro, están surtiendo un efecto benéfico a escala mundial. Todos los problemas que se ciernen sobre la economía mundial son de carácter político.

Después de 25 años de estancamiento, el Japón está intentando reanimar su economía recurriendo a la relajación cuantitativa en una escala sin precedentes. Es un experimento peligroso: un crecimiento más rápido podría hacer subir los tipos de interés, con lo que los costos del servicio de la deuda resultarían insostenibles, pero el Primer Ministro, Shinzo Abe, ha preferido correr ese riesgo a condenar al Japón a una muerte lenta y, a juzgar por el entusiástico apoyo público, lo mismo se podría decir de los japoneses comunes y corrientes.

En cambio, la Unión Europea se dirige a la clase de estancamiento de larga duración del que el Japón ansía escapar. Es mucho lo que está en juego: los Estados-nación pueden sobrevivir a un decenio perdido o más, pero la UE, asociación incompleta de Estados-nación, podría resultar destruida con ello.

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