Gaza entonces y ahora

Cuando la Franja de Gaza quedó sumergida en la oscuridad la semana pasada como resultado del bloqueo de combustible israelí, mucha gente en todo el mundo se sorprendió. Sin embargo, el optimismo producido por el proceso de paz de Annapolis, que incluyó la promesa del presidente George W. Bush de un acuerdo en 2008 para crear un estado palestino, era claramente poco realista.

A Gaza normalmente se la ve en términos del abrumador apoyo con el que cuenta allí Hamas, pero la realidad es muy diferente. Las encuestas de opinión realizadas en Gaza por el Grupo de Asesoría para el Cercano Oriente a fines de noviembre de 2007 indicaban un apoyo popular del 74% para un acuerdo de paz con Israel. Sólo el 15% votaría por parlamentarios de Hamas o por un candidato presidencial de Hamas, comparado con el 55% a favor de los candidatos de Fatah. El proceso de paz inspirado en Annapolis recibió el 81% de apoyo.

Al igual que muchos territorios en la región, Gaza ha tenido una larga historia de ocupación extranjera, que se remonta a tiempos ancestrales. En 1949, la guerra árabe-israelí terminó con un armisticio que dividió a Palestina en tres partes, cada una de las cuales bajo un control político independiente. Israel abarcó más del 77% del territorio, Jordania pasó a gobernar el este de Jerusalén y Cisjordania, y Egipto tomó control de Gaza. El estado árabe palestino imaginado por el plan de partición de 1947 de las Naciones Unidas, que debía incluir a Gaza, nunca se estableció.

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