De l’hybris à la némésis en Europe

PARIS –  L’Union européenne a tout d’abord accueilli le traité de Lisbonne avec enthousiasme, fierté, voire hybris. Il promettait une approche plus réaliste et mesurée que l’infortuné traité constitutionnel qu’il remplaçait. Nombre de ses partisans espéraient qu’un des principaux traits de son prédécesseur – la notion de « patriotisme constitutionnel » – n’avait pas disparu. Contre toute attente, le traité de Lisbonne a semé le chaos au sein de l’Union. Que s’est-il donc passé ?

Le patriotisme constitutionnel, concept développé par deux philosophes allemands Dolf Sternberger et Karl Jaspers, avait pour but de remplacer le nationalisme discrédité par le passé nazi de leur pays. Ainsi, à mesure que l'UE se muerait en état fédéral, ses fidèles citoyens rejetteraient le nationalisme fondé sur les affinités ethniques et s’identifieraient aux principes démocratiques de la constitution de leur fédération.

Or, sans ambiguïté aucune, les électeurs irlandais ont tué ce rêve. Il semble donc approprié de rappeler que les Grecs de l’Antiquité, qui ont surnommé le monde occidental « hybris », voyaient dans leurs tragédies l’hybris comme un mauvais présage, menant à la chute ou à la « némésis ».

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